The International Court of Justice was founded in 1945 as a part of the terms of the Charter of the United Nations. In 1946, the court began to hear cases for the first time. Its purpose is to serve as a world court.
Fifteen elected judges serve on the court, completing nine year terms. Elections for new judges are held every three years with the Security Council and United Nations General Assembly members casting votes. Together, the judges on the court handle a number of cases, settling disputes, arbitrating and negotiating agreements between the various member states of the United Nations. In addition, the court provides advice to the committees and specialized agencies of the United Nations regarding various legal matters.
The court is located in Peace Palace in The Hague. This makes the court the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations to be located outside of New York, United States. In addition to judges, the International Court of Justice employs a number of other individuals for legal, administrative and clerical jobs.
The International Criminal Court of Justice was founded in 1998 when the Rome Statute of the United Nations was ratified by 50 member states. The purpose of the court is to hear cases related to serious crimes like genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. In 2010, amendments made to the Rome Statue enabled the court to also hear cases related to crimes of aggression.
All court proceedings that take place in the International Criminal Court of Justice are handled fairly. The Office of the Prosecutor is independent of the court itself to ensure a separation between those arguing and deciding cases. Terms of the Rome Statute also outline ways in which the rights of the accused are protected, and the court adheres to these guidelines closely.
Since its founding, the International Criminal Court of Justice has heard 28 cases. Eight of those cases resulted in convictions. Today, the court is located in The Hague, the Netherlands. Over 900 people are employed by the court with employees originating from 100 different United Nations member states. The court has six official languages: English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Spanish. English and French are the working languages of the court.
The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism is a think tank that studies and advises on methods of countering violence related to extremism. Specifically, the center conducts counter-terrorism research and analysis and offers public policy advice. In addition, the organization monitors and evaluates counter-terrorism policies and offers training modules and summer programs for students and professionals. Employees partner with individuals who represent the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and many United Nations agencies.
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established in 1993. The purpose of the court is to hear cases related to war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity committed during the 1990s in the midst of the conflicts that occurred in the Balkan region of Europe. The court has three main branches: the Chambers, the Registry and the Office of the Prosecutor. All three branches are headquartered in The Hague, the Netherlands.